# Results

The Results page shows a list of all the results for a single quiz assignment. All columns are sortable.

**Student**
This will sort by Surname.

**Time**
Start time of the first attempt. Quite interesting if you are setting quizzes for homework.

**Attempts**
The number of attempts started. It may include one incomplete attempt.

**Questions**
Total number of questions completed, across all attempts. If an attempt is incomplete then the total number will not be a multiple of the number of questions in the quiz. The reliability of a summative grade is closely connected to the total number of questions completed.

**Time spent**
Time elapsed from start to finish of each quiz. It does not include pauses between quizzes.

**Avg time**
Average time spent answering each question. Students with low scores and very short times per answer will benefit from work to improve their confidence. Try giving them a quiz to do with the specific instruction that they must not click the answer until they see the timer bar flashing. In this way, they will calibrate to time they really have available to think the question through.

**Over/Under Confidence**
This measures the difference between the student's predicted score and the actual score. Students who are habitually over-confident are at greatest risk of not revising adequately. Give them consistent praise or rewards for improving the accuracy of their predictions. Students who are habitually under-confident may be trying to protect themselves from criticism or disappointment, and should be encouraged to welcome wrong answers as an opportunity to learn, rather than as failure. In both cases, look for the general pattern rather than an individual result, and encourage students to train themselves to be realistic about their abilities.

**Grasp of key concepts**
Questions are tagged with up to 6 keywords per quiz. Use these to get a feel for which concepts students have grasped, and which require reinforcements. If you do not find the keywords for this particular quiz useful, or if they are missing entirely, you should contact the quiz author.

**Improvement**
If students have had more than one attempt at a quiz, this measures the difference between the first and last attempt. occasionally you may wish to motivate students to study between quiz attempts by rewarding the highest improvement. This enables to you to celebrate an entirely different group of students from your usual top-scorers. Do this at random intervals so as not to train students to deliberately get a low score on the first attempt.

**Score**
This is the raw percentage, averaged over all attempts. Summative assessments should always use the average as this is by far the most accurate predictor of future results.

**Grade**
The percentage score is converted to a grade by an algorithm that takes into account the difficulty of the quiz. To change the grade scheme for this student set go to Students > Student Sets > Actions > Edit Student Set. If the grade appears too low or too high to you, the quiz difficulty may be mis-set. Add some results from an offline task for this student set via More > Offline Assessment and this data will be used to recalculate the quiz difficulty in the next regular update.